It is important to understand the historical population sizes, habitat type, and water quality of Puget Sound and the Yelloweye Rockfish before there is any attempt to establish a healthy population. The time used to research the historical qualities of Puget Sound can be done early in the study whilst other aspects are being worked on. The most important aspect of any biological restoration is attempting to reproduce a historically healthy habitat. Puget Sound has been known for its pollution since the 80’s when they discovered high levels of POP’s, and declared 2 superfund sites in Puget Sound.
Restoring the natural and historical habitat of the Rockfish in Puget Sound is not an easy task and will take several years to accomplish. There are several departments working currently on reducing the pollution levels in Puget Sound so for this project the focus will be primarily on the restoration of the rocky corals and boulder fields, these should be implemented throughout Puget Sound including the production of shallow rocky reefs and boulder fields. Introducing a wider habitat with more coverage may attribute to the protection of rockfish and other species that utilize the rocky protection. Yelloweye are known for having a very small home range, potentially living solely in one rock pile. The production of new rocky reef and boulder fields could be readily protected by banning fishing and mooring in certain areas of Puget Sound. Marine reserves need to be implemented XXXX…
Importing Yelloweye Rockfish both (juveniles and adults) from Alaska and British Columbia, where populations are thriving, could be utilized in multiple ways. The first would be to stock Puget Sound, primarily in protected areas (both artificially made rocky reefs and boulder fields and naturally occurring ones). This not only would increase the population size but it would also increase genetic flow in the dwindling Puget Sound population. It is important to slowly acclimate these fish both in capturing and releasing due to the chance of death due to their inability to readily release oxygen from their swim bladders(XXXX). This acclimation period is one where they are readily preyed upon and thus need to be protected until fully acclimated. Another important use of importation is utilizing this population in a hatchery on Puget Sound. This hatchery (focused on in next section) will utilize the juveniles and adults in an effort to both produce healthy offspring within their own population and with a population harvested from Puget Sound and potentially for the production of a hybrid species (explained in forthcoming section).
Hatcheries are a way to produce a population of fish that may be strongly affected by high mortality (death) in its offspring prior to reaching sexual maturity. The Yelloweye Rockfish is a long-lived fish and takes roughly 20 years to reach sexual maturity. Thus, the use of imported juveniles and breeding adults will help speed the process of restoring the population to more historical levels and supporting the population in the future. The Yelloweye is known to produce up to 2,700,000 eggs and give birth to live young, by protecting these offspring through their juvenile years until maturity could readily restore the Puget Sound population and potentially make the Yelloweye a sport fish once again. Hatcheries are known to cause a number of issues including disease, reduced gene flow, bias selection, and a comfortability with human interaction (reviewed in the limitations section). To minimize this, the facility will use methods that reduce selection bias, monitor disease, and minimize human interaction. Reducing human interaction will not play too large of a role as the juveniles change feeding methods and habitat upon reaching sexual maturity where they begin eating fish and crustaceans in lieu of plankton and other small organisms and move to deeper levels in the ocean. Yelloweye adults released from the hatchery should be visibly tagged to enable proper calculations of population size.
Hybrids have been known to help conserve an aspect of the genetic code of an endangered species and potentially create a stronger species. This will require researching genetic sequences and finding a close relative to the Yelloweye, which may not be in Puget Sound, and attempting to hybridize the two species. The preferred species for the Yelloweye to hybridize with would be on that reaches sexual maturity earlier in life, decreasing the Yelloweye hybrids life span may increase the number of offspring an individual may produce because so many individuals fail to reach sexual maturity. This is a potentially dangerous practice and should be approached cautiously as the introduction of fish may have detrimental effects on the ecosystem. Yet, the addition of a viable hybrid may increase genetic flow, species richness, and potentially provide fishers with a sport fish that is not protected. These species should be tagged to identify them as a separate species from the Yelloweye.
Educating the public is always an important effort for any attempt to restore an ecosystem. With the public’s understanding, support, and input we can both increase effectiveness of the implemented processes and decrease the cost of these processes. Utilizing the public for volunteering, fundraising, and publicity will greatly benefit the project and make the goals readily accessible.
Field Data Collection Methods
Set dive transects will be implemented to analyze the population size of the Yelloweye and the species richness of the rocky habitats. Divers will be on 50 meter transects in the Boulder fields and Rocky Coral beds. They will record population data for the Yelloweye and other potential inhabitants. Another set of transect data will be attained using Manta tow technique, where a diver is pulled behind a boat with a board to record data. The diver is pulled at a predetermined speed (~4km/hr) for two minute increments, every 2 minutes they stop and the diver records all of the data for the last two minutes and then the transect is continued. Divers will make special note of tagged specimens which will later be used to estimate population size of the Yelloweye using a mark recapture method.
The use of Historical research will be used to generate ideal goals for the habitat type, size, and health as well as the population size of the Yelloweye. It is important to realize that we will not be able to return Puget Sound to historically pristine conditions due to the high level of anthropogenic pollution and activity. The historical data will be used to produce goals that are reachable and manageable through the years. The main goal of this historical research is to find a number that can be maintained with minimal stocking efforts and be able to resist decline due to fishing activities (both active and by-catch).
The restoration of the Puget Sound Yelloweye Rockfish is a project that will encompass several fields and be a lasting endeavor. The wide variety of expertise needed to accomplish the goals of the project requires the collaboration of several individuals who may bring a skill set ideal for a branch of the project. My personal contribution will primarily be population analysis, this is only a small portion of the project but it is the central goal of the project to restore the population. Though I do plan to participate in all areas of this project, I will have several individuals conducting the various branches of this project.
To analyze the population it is important that there is not damage done to the population so it is important that population demographics are done via dives. Tagging of released individuals from fisheries will be used as a means to reproduce a mark recapture study; we will not recapture individuals though. XXXXX
The primary data that will be used for analyzing will be the population demographics. The starting population will be assessed via comparing current estimates with data collected via dive transects, these transects will be used again during mark recapture efforts, though there will be no recapturing in this study. It will be important to take sample specimen of the population throughout the study and monitor the level of inbreeding, parasite loads, and population estimates for size and age (using otoliths). This data will be collected and analyzed semiannually to ensure there are no spikes or drops in population size or health. XXXXX
There are several ethical dilemmas that this project must face. Primarily this project will have to confront the local fishing population and implore them to understand the importance of marine reserves, limiting bottom troweling, and other practices that are known to be destructive to the Yelloweye habitat. This long term project will take the continual effort of the team and community to properly reestablish the population, thus there must be some incentive offered to the local fishers. This is where the hybrid rockfish may play an economically beneficial role, if it does take off as a species. Rockfish, commonly known as Snappers on the West Coast are an expensive and sought after fish. Introducing a new fishable Snapper that can be stocked and possibly survive the impact of sport fishing could be the solution for appeasing the fishing community so they allow for the Marine Reserves in Puget Sound.
The introduction of a new species is another ethical dilemma, a hybrid species can be considered both more and less detrimental in the public’s eye. Many hybrids can be genetically altered so they are sterile thus reducing the likelihood that they will decimate the ecosystem, and thus creating a sterile population that is continually stocked into Puget Sound may be another alternative for helping protect the Yelloweye. Creating a hybrid is an invasive procedure and many of the public may find the idea of the project “playing god” to be unappealing and may lead to further ethical dilemmas.
The methods being implemented in this project are aimed to do minimal damage to the target species and the other inhabitants of Puget Sound. These methods for monitoring population size are commonly used in areas where it is important to minimize the stress typically related to other capture methods. Using a typical mark recapture method, where the individual must be recaptured to estimate population size, is one that would be a death sentence to the individual as many adult Yelloweye’s cannot survive being brought to surface rapidly (XXXX). It is also important to revisit the idea that the Yelloweye has a very small home range, making them less likely to be counted multiple times while on transect; thus by using set transect data there will be minimal damage to the population and the estimate of the population will still be accurate.
|0-1||Preliminary research completed, start rebuilding habitat, begin collecting specimen for hatchery|
|1-2||Continue rebuilding habitat, begin breeding in hatchery, look at genetic code for relatives of the Yelloweye|
|2-4||Finish rebuilding habitat, establish marine reserves continue breeding in the hatchery, introduce imported adults to marine reserves, begin trying to hybridize individuals.|
|4-6||Continue to stock marine reserves with imported adults, continue breeding in hatchery, continue hybridizing individuals, begin monitoring the Marine Reserves via manta tow and fixed SCUBA transects semiannually, analyze data recorded.|
|6-19||Continue to stock marine reserves with imported adults, continue breeding in hatchery, continue hybridizing individuals, continue monitoring the Marine Reserves via manta tow and fixed SCUBA transects semiannually, analyze data recorded. Potentially begin introducing hybrid individuals.|
|20||Continue to stock marine reserves with imported adults, continue breeding in hatchery, continue hybridizing individuals, continue monitoring the Marine Reserves via manta tow and fixed SCUBA transects semiannually, analyze data recorded, continue to release tagged hybrid individuals, begin releasing tagged adults that were raised in the hatchery.|
|20+||Continue to stock marine reserves with imported adults, continue breeding in hatchery, continue hybridizing individuals, continue monitoring the Marine Reserves via manta tow and fixed SCUBA transects semiannually, analyze data recorded, continue releasing tagged adults and hybrids that were raised in the hatchery.|
- Resources and Materials-(for research aspect of project only)
Dive boat (rent), Scuba gear (rent), manta tow gear. XXXXX
- Budget-(for research aspect only, the rest of the population restoration is likely a billion dollar effort with too many variables to estimate)
|Dive boat rental||$300 / day|
|SCUBA gear rental||$110 / day|
|Manta Tow Gear||Build for ~ $100|
The biggest limitation of this project is time. Finding funding for long term research and conservation is difficult because results will not be available for several years, thus it is easy to loose public support. People want results and this study cannot guarantee results for several years, even stocking Puget Sound may take years for the fish to become properly established, thus it is important to give a realistic timeline to the public and supporters.
It is important to realize that the management of a long-lived species is very different from the management of other fish. It requires time and most importantly a cease in fishing efforts in the reserves. Thus, we must exclude any paper describing management methods used for species that are not long-lived. It is also important to exclude any analysis of mark recapture that involves the physical capturing of the individuals because of the Yelloweye’s struggle surviving changes in depth.
The successful revival of the Yelloweye population would be a great stepping off point for several other management efforts for long-lived species. If the project is successful it will be important to publish the methods, data, and results making the process replicable for other populations that are threatened or endangered due to overfishing or habitat degradation. If the results are not what we hoped for they are important to share too, that way others may develop new methods and ideas from our short comings.